Utilization of the 21-Gene Recurrence Score in a Diverse Breast Cancer Patient Population: Development of a Clinicopathologic Model to Predict High-Risk Scores and Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

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Annals of surgical oncology : the official journal of the Society of Surgical Oncology


INTRODUCTION: The 21-gene expression profile [Oncotype DX Recurrence Score (RS)] stratifies benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2/neu-negative, node-negative breast cancer. It is not routinely applied to predict neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) response; data in diverse patient populations also are limited. We developed a statistical model based on standard clinicopathologic features to identify high-risk cases (RS > 30) and then evaluated ability of predicted high RS to predict for NACT downstaging.

METHODS: Primary surgery patients with Oncotype DX RS testing 2012-2016 were identified from a prospectively-maintained database. A RS predictive model was created and applied to a dataset of comparable NACT patients. Response was defined as tumor size decrease ≥ 1 cm.

RESULTS: Of 394 primary surgery patients-60.4% white American; 31.0% African American-RS distribution was similar for both groups. No single feature reliably identified high RS patients; however, a model accounting for age, HR expression, proliferative index (MIB1/Ki67), histology, and tumor size was generated, with receiver operator area under the curve 0.909. Fifty-six NACT patients were identified (25 African American). Of 21 cases with all relevant clinicopathology, 14 responded to NACT and the model generated high-risk RS in 14 (100%); conversely, of 16 cases generating high-risk RS, only 2 did not respond.

CONCLUSIONS: Predictive modelling can identify high RS patients; this model also can identify patients likely to experience primary tumor downstaging with NACT. Until this model is validated in other datasets, we recommend that Oncotype-eligible patients undergo primary surgery with decisions regarding chemotherapy made in the adjuvant setting.

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Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Biomarkers, Tumor; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast; Carcinoma, Lobular; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Gene Expression Profiling; Humans; Middle Aged; Neoadjuvant Therapy; Neoplasm Invasiveness; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; Prognosis; Survival Rate

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