Brief Report: Randomized Phase 2 Studies of Checkpoint Inhibitors Alone or in Combination with Pegilodecakin in Patients with Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (CYPRESS-1 and CYPRESS-2)
Spigel D, Jotte R, Nemunaitis J, Shum M, Schneider J, Goldschmidt J, Eisenstein J, Berz D, Seneviratne L, Socoteanu M, Bhanderi V, Konduri K, Xia M, Wang H, Hozak RR, Gueorguieva I, Ferry D, Gandhi L, Chao BH, and Rybkin I. Brief Report: Randomized Phase 2 Studies of Checkpoint Inhibitors Alone or in Combination with Pegilodecakin in Patients with Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (CYPRESS-1 and CYPRESS-2). J Thorac Oncol 2020.
J Thorac Oncol
INTRODUCTION: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have been approved to treat metastatic NSCLC. Pegilodecakin+CPI suggested promising efficacy in phase 1 IVY, providing rationale for randomized phase 2 trials CYPRESS-1 and CYPRESS-2.
METHODS: CYPRESS-1 (N=101) and CYPRESS-2 (N=52) included ECOG 0-1, 1L/2L metastatic NSCLC, respectively, without known EGFR/ALK mutations. Patients were randomized 1:1; control arms received pembrolizumab (CYPRESS-1) or nivolumab (CYPRESS-2); experimental arms received pegilodecakin+CPI. Patients had PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥50% (CYPRESS-1) or 0-49% (CYPRESS-2). Primary endpoint was ORR per investigator. Secondary endpoints included PFS, OS, and safety. Exploratory endpoints included immune activation biomarkers.
RESULTS: Median follow-up for CYPRESS-1 and CYPRESS-2 was 10.0 and 11.6 months, respectively. Results for pegilodecakin+pembrolizumab versus pembrolizumab were: ORR per investigator 47%vs.44% (Odds ratio:1.1;95%CI[0.5,2.5]); mPFS 6.3vs.6.1 months (HR:0.937;95%CI[0.541,1.625]); and mOS 16.3 months vs. not reached (HR:1.507;95%CI[0.708,3.209]). Results per blinded independent central review (BICR) were consistent. Treatment discontinuation rate due to AEs doubled in the experimental arm (32%vs.15%). Gr≥3 treatment related adverse events (TRAEs)(62%vs.19%) included anemia(20%vs.0%) and thrombocytopenia(12%vs.2%). Results for pegilodecakin+nivolumab versus nivolumab were: ORR per investigator 15%vs.12% (Odds ratio:1.2;95%CI[0.3,5.9]); mPFS 1.9vs.1.9 months (HR:1.006;95%CI[0.519,1.951]); and mOS 6.7vs.10.7 months (HR:1.871;95%CI[0.772,4.532]). Gr≥3 TRAEs (70.4%vs.16.7%) included anemia(40.7%vs.0%), fatigue(18%vs.0%), and thrombocytopenia(14.8%vs.0%). Biomarker data suggested activation of immunostimulatory signals of IL-10R pathway in pegilodecakin-containing arms.
CONCLUSION: Despite evidence of biological effect in peripheral blood, adding pegilodecakin to CPI did not improve ORR, PFS, or OS, in 1L/2L NSCLC. Pegilodecakin+CPI demonstrated overall higher toxicity compared to CPI alone, leading to doubling of treatment discontinuation rate due to AEs.
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