Phase 1b investigation of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib in patients with advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer

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Investigational new drugs


Background The MAPK pathway plays a central role in regulation of several cellular processes, and its dysregulation is a hallmark of biliary tract cancer (BTC). Binimetinib (MEK162), a potent, selective oral MEK1/2 inhibitor, was assessed in patients with advanced BTC. Patients and Methods An expansion cohort study in patients who received ≤1 line of therapy for advanced BTC was conducted after determination of the maximum tolerated dose in this Phase 1 trial. Patients received binimetinib 60 mg twice daily. The primary objectives were to characterize the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of binimetinib in advanced BTC. Secondary objectives included assessment of clinical efficacy, changes in weight and lean body mass, and pharmacodynamic effects. Tumor samples were assessed for mutations in relevant genes. Results Twenty-eight patients received binimetinib. Common adverse events (AEs) were mild, with rash (82%) and nausea (54%) being most common. Two patients experienced grade 4 AEs, one generalized edema and the other pulmonary embolism. The pharmacokinetics in this patient population were consistent with those previously reported (Bendell JC et al., Br J Cancer 2017;116:575-583). Twelve patients (43%) experienced stable disease and two had objective responses (1 complete response, 1 partial response) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and stable metabolic disease by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Most patients (18/25; 72%) did not have KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PI3KCA, or PTEN mutations, nor was there correlation between mutation status and response. The average non-fluid weight gain was 1.3% for lean muscle and 4.7% for adipose tissue. Conclusion Binimetinib was well tolerated and showed promising evidence of activity in patients with BTC. Correlative studies suggested the potential for binimetinib to promote muscle gain in patients with BTC.

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Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Benzimidazoles; Biliary Tract Neoplasms; DNA Mutational Analysis; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Muscles; Neoplasm Metastasis; Neoplasm Staging; Organ Size; Protein Kinase Inhibitors; Subcutaneous Fat; Treatment Outcome

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