Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a debilitating progressive illness that affects more than 10% of the world's population. In this literature review, we discussed the roles of nutritional interventions, lifestyle modifications, hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) control, and medications in delaying the progression of CKD. Walking, weight loss, low-protein diet (LPD), adherence to the alternate Mediterranean (aMed) diet, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 slow the progression of CKD. However, smoking and binge alcohol drinking increase the risk of CKD progression. In addition, hyperglycemia, altered lipid metabolism, low-grade inflammation, over-activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and overhydration (OH) increase diabetic CKD progression. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) control of <140/90 mmHg in patients without albuminuria and <130/80 mmHg in patients with albuminuria to prevent CKD progression. Medical therapies aim to target epigenetic alterations, fibrosis, and inflammation. Currently, RAAS blockade, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, pentoxifylline, and finerenone are approved for managing CKD. In addition, according to the completed Study of Diabetic Nephropathy with Atrasentan (SONAR), atrasentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), decreased the risk of renal events in diabetic CKD patients. However, ongoing trials are studying the role of other agents in slowing the progression of CKD.

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.