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JAMA Netw Open


IMPORTANCE: Black men have higher incidence and mortality from prostate cancer. Whether precision oncology disparities affect Black men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To compare precision medicine data and outcomes between Black and White men with mCRPC.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study used data collected by the Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine Multi-Institutional Collaborative Effort (PROMISE) consortium, a multi-institutional registry with linked clinicogenomic data, from April 2020 to December 2021. Participants included Black and White patients with mCRPC with molecular data. Data were analyzed from December 2021 to May 2023.

EXPOSURES: Database-reported race and ethnicity.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the frequency of actionable molecular data, defined as the presence of mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), homologous recombination repair deficiency, or tumor mutational burden of 10 mutations per megabase or greater. Secondary outcomes included the frequency of other alterations, the type and timing of genomic testing performed, and use of targeted therapy. Efficacy outcomes were prostate-specific antigen response rate, site-reported radiographic response, and overall survival.

RESULTS: A total of 962 eligible patients with mCRPC were identified, including 204 Black patients (21.2%; median [IQR] age at diagnosis, 61 [55-67] years; 131 patients [64.2%] with Gleason scores 8-10; 92 patients [45.1%] with de novo metastatic disease) and 758 White patients (78.8%; median [IQR] age, 63 [57-69] years; 445 patients [58.7%] with Gleason scores 8-10; 310 patients [40.9%] with de novo metastatic disease). Median (IQR) follow-up from mCRPC was 26.6 (14.2-44.7) months. Blood-based molecular testing was more common in Black men (111 men [48.7%]) than White men (317 men [36.4%]; P < .001). Rates of actionable alterations were similar between groups (65 Black men [32.8%]; 215 White men [29.1%]; P = .35), but MMRD or MSI-H was more common in Black men (18 men [9.1]) than White men (36 men [4.9%]; P = .04). PTEN alterations were less frequent in Black men than White men (31 men [15.7%] vs 194 men [26.3%]; P = .003), as were TMPRSS alterations (14 men [7.1%] vs 155 men [21.0%]; P < .001). No other differences were seen in the 15 most frequently altered genes, including TP53, AR, CDK12, RB1, and PIK3CA. Matched targeted therapy was given less frequently in Black men than White men (22 men [33.5%] vs 115 men [53.5%]; P = .008). There were no differences in response to targeted therapy or survival between the two cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cohort study of men with mCRPC found higher frequency of MMRD or MSI-H and lower frequency of PTEN and TMPRSS alterations in Black men compared with White men. Although Black men received targeted therapy less frequently than White men, no differences were observed in clinical outcomes.

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Precision Medicine; Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant; Retrospective Studies; White People; Black or African American; Neoplasm Metastasis; Biomarkers, Tumor

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