Phase 1/2 study of monalizumab plus durvalumab in patients with advanced solid tumors

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

J Immunother Cancer


BACKGROUND: The combination of monalizumab (anti-NKG2A/CD94) and durvalumab (anti-programmed death ligand-1) may promote antitumor immunity by targeting innate and adaptive immunity. This phase 1/2 study of monalizumab and durvalumab evaluated safety, antitumor activity, and pharmacodynamics in patients with advanced solid tumors.

MAIN BODY: Immunotherapy-naïve patients aged ≥18 years with advanced disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and 1-3 prior lines of systemic therapy in the recurrent/metastatic setting were enrolled. In part 1 (dose escalation), patients received durvalumab 1500 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) with increasing doses of monalizumab Q2W/Q4W (n=15). Dose expansion in part 1 included patients with cervical cancer (n=15; durvalumab 1500 mg Q4W and monalizumab 750 mg Q2W) or metastatic microsatellite stable (MSS)-colorectal cancer (CRC) (n=15; durvalumab 1500 mg Q4W and monalizumab 750 mg Q4W). In part 2 (dose expansion), patients with MSS-CRC (n=40), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n=20), MSS-endometrial cancer (n=40), or ovarian cancer (n=40) received durvalumab 1500 mg Q4W and monalizumab 750 mg Q2W. The primary endpoint was safety. Secondary endpoints included antitumor activity per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1). Exploratory analyses included assessment of T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell activation and proliferation in peripheral blood and the tumor microenvironment (TME). The study enrolled 185 patients (part 1, 45; part 2, 140). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. In part 2, the most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (12.1%), asthenia (9.3%), diarrhea (9.3%), pruritus (7.9%), and pyrexia (7.1%). In the expansion cohorts, response rates were 0% (cervical), 7.7% (MSS-CRC), 10% (NSCLC), 5.4% (ovarian), and 0% (MSS-endometrial). Sustained NK cell activation, CD8(+) T-cell proliferation, increased serum levels of CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10) and CXCL11, and increased tumor infiltration of CD8(+) and granzyme B(+) cells were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Although efficacy was modest, monalizumab plus durvalumab was well tolerated and encouraging immune activation was observed in the peripheral blood and TME.


Medical Subject Headings

Female; Humans; Adolescent; Adult; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Ligands; Lung Neoplasms; Tumor Microenvironment; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized

PubMed ID