Repeat Next-Generation Sequencing Testing on Progression in Men With Metastatic Prostate Cancer Can Identify New Actionable Alterations

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JCO Precis Oncol


PURPOSE: There are limited data available on the real-world patterns of molecular testing in men with advanced prostate cancer. We thus sought to evaluate next-generation sequencing (NGS) testing in the United States, focused on single versus serial NGS testing, the different disease states of testing (hormone-sensitive v castration-resistant, metastatic vs nonmetastatic), tissue versus plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) assays, and how often actionable data were found on each NGS test.

METHODS: The Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine Multi-Institutional Collaborative Effort clinical-genomic database was used for this retrospective analysis, including 1,597 patients across 15 institutions. Actionable NGS data were defined as including somatic alterations in homologous recombination repair genes, mismatch repair deficiency, microsatellite instability (MSI-high), or a high tumor mutational burden ≥10 mut/MB.

RESULTS: Serial NGS testing (two or more NGS tests with specimens collected more than 60 days apart) was performed in 9% (n = 144) of patients with a median of 182 days in between test results. For the second NGS test and beyond, 82.1% (225 of 274) of tests were from ctDNA assays and 76.1% (217 of 285) were collected in the metastatic castration-resistant setting. New actionable data were found on 11.1% (16 of 144) of second NGS tests, with 3.5% (5 of 144) of tests detecting a new BRCA2 alteration or MSI-high. A targeted therapy (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor or immunotherapy) was given after an actionable result on the second NGS test in 31.3% (5 of 16) of patients.

CONCLUSION: Repeat somatic NGS testing in men with prostate cancer is infrequently performed in practice and can identify new actionable alterations not present with initial testing, suggesting the utility of repeat molecular profiling with tissue or blood of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer to guide therapy choices.

Medical Subject Headings

Male; Humans; Retrospective Studies; Prostatic Neoplasms; Circulating Tumor DNA; Antineoplastic Agents; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing

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