Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Mar Drugs


This study began with the goal of identifying constituents from Zyzzya fuliginosa extracts that showed selectivity in our primary cytotoxicity screen against the PANC-1 tumor cell line. During the course of this project, which focused on six Z. fuliginosa samples collected from various regions of the Indo-Pacific, known compounds were obtained consisting of nine makaluvamine and three damirone analogues. Four new acetylated derivatives were also prepared. High-accuracy electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HAESI-MS) m/z ions produced through MS² runs were obtained and interpreted to provide a rapid way for dereplicating isomers containing a pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline core. In vitro human pancreas/duct epithelioid carcinoma (PANC-1) cell line IC50 data was obtained for 16 compounds and two therapeutic standards. These results along with data gleaned from the literature provided useful structure activity relationship conclusions. Three structural motifs proved to be important in maximizing potency against PANC-1: (i) conjugation within the core of the ABC-ring; (ii) the presence of a positive charge in the C-ring; and (iii) inclusion of a 4-ethyl phenol or 4-ethyl phenol acetate substituent off the B-ring. Two compounds, makaluvamine J (9) and 15-O-acetyl makaluvamine J (15), contained all three of these frameworks and exhibited the best potency with IC50 values of 54 nM and 81 nM, respectively. These two most potent analogs were then tested against the OVCAR-5 cell line and the presence of the acetyl group increased the potency 14-fold from that of 9 whose IC50 = 120 nM vs. that of 15 having IC50 = 8.6 nM.

Medical Subject Headings

Alkaloids; Animals; Cell Line, Tumor; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Porifera; Pyrroloiminoquinones; Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization; Structure-Activity Relationship

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