Risk for Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence Among Rivaroxaban-treated Patients Who Continued Versus Discontinued Therapy: Analyses Among Patients with VTE.

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Clinical therapeutics


PURPOSE: The EINSTEIN-Extension trial showed that an extended rivaroxaban treatment significantly reduced the risk for venous thromboembolic (VTE) recurrence. The present study assessed the risk for VTE recurrence and major bleeding associated with extended rivaroxaban treatment in a clinical practice setting among patients with VTE.

METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using claims data from February 2011 to April 2015. It included adult patients who initiated rivaroxaban therapy within 7 days after their first VTE and who continuously used rivaroxaban for at least 3 months (index date: end of initial 3-month treatment). Categorized into discontinued and continued cohorts, patients were followed up from the index date until the end of continuous treatment (continued cohort) or end of data or reinitiation of oral anticoagulant therapy (discontinued cohort). Using inverse probability of treatment weights controlling for confounders, adjusted Kaplan-Meier rates of recurrent VTE and major bleeding events were compared.

FINDINGS: The analysis showed that, compared with the discontinued cohort (n = 1,536), the continued cohort (n = 5,933) had a significantly lower VTE recurrence rate after an additional 3 months (0.70% vs 1.70%), 6 months (1.41% vs 2.34%), 9 months (1.82% vs 3.01%), and 12 months (1.97% vs 3.01%) of treatment (all, p < 0.05). The difference in the cumulative event rates for major bleeding was not statistically significant. Similar results were obtained in an analysis among patients with VTE receiving rivaroxaban for ≥6 months.

IMPLICATIONS: Our results suggest that, in clinical practice settings, patients with VTE who continued rivaroxaban therapy after the initial 3- or 6-month treatment period had a significantly lower risk for VTE recurrence without a statistically significant increased risk for major bleeding.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Aged; Factor Xa Inhibitors; Female; Hemorrhage; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Recurrence; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Rivaroxaban; Venous Thromboembolism; Young Adult

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