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Publication Title

J Clin Med


Anticoagulation carries a tremendous therapeutic advantage in reducing morbidity and mortality with venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation. For over six decades, traditional anticoagulants like low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists like warfarin have been used to achieve therapeutic anticoagulation. In the past decade, multiple new direct oral anticoagulants have emerged and been approved for clinical use. Since their introduction, direct oral anticoagulants have changed the landscape of anticoagulants. With increasing indications and use in various patients, they have become the mainstay of treatment in venous thromboembolic diseases. The safety profile of direct oral anticoagulants is better or at least similar to warfarin, but several recent reports are focusing on spontaneous hemorrhages with direct oral anticoagulants. This narrative review aims to summarize the incidence of spontaneous hemorrhage in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants and also offers practical management strategies for clinicians when patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants present with bleeding complications.

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