Cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 myocardial infarction among COVID-19 patients: a propensity matched national study

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Expert review of cardiovascular therapy


BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction Type II (T2MI) is a prevalent cause of troponin elevation secondary to a variety of conditions causing stress/demand mismatch. The impact of T2MI on outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is not well studied.

METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from the year 2020 was queried to identify COVID-19 patients with T2MI during the index hospitalization. Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes 'U07.1' and 'I21.A1' were used as disease identifiers for COVID-19 and T2MI respectively. Multivariate adjusted Odds ratio (aOR) and propensity score matching (PSM) was done to compare outcomes among COVID patients with and without T2MI. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS: A total of 1,678,995 COVID-19-weighted hospitalizations were identified in the year 2020, of which 41,755 (2.48%) patients had T2MI compared to 1,637,165 (97.5%) without T2MI. Patients with T2MI had higher adjusted odds of in-hospital mortality (aOR 1.44, PSM 32.27%, 95% CI 1.34-1.54) sudden cardiac arrest (aOR 1.29, PSM 6.6%, 95% CI 1.17-1.43) and CS (aOR 2.16, PSM 2.73%, 95% CI 1.85-2.53) compared to patients without T2MI. The rate of coronary angiography (CA) in T2MI with COVID was 1.19%, with significant use of CA among patients with T2MI complicated by CS compared to those without CS (4% vs 1.1%, p < 0.001). Additionally, COVID-19 patients with T2MI had an increased prevalence of sepsis compared to COVID-19 without T2MI (48% vs 24.1%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with T2MI had worse cardiovascular outcomes with significantly higher in-hospital mortality, SCA, and CS compared to those without T2MI. Long-term mortality and morbidity among COVID-19 patients who had T2MI will need to be clarified in future studies.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; COVID-19; Heart; Myocardial Infarction; Coronary Angiography; Troponin

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ePub ahead of print





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