The Intersection of Genetic Factors, Aberrant Nutrient Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in the Progression of Cardiometabolic Disease

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Antioxidants (Basel)


Cardiometabolic disease (CMD), which encompasses metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been increasing considerably in the past 50 years. CMD is a complex disease that can be influenced by genetics and environmental factors such as diet. With the increased reliance on processed foods containing saturated fats, fructose and cholesterol, a mechanistic understanding of how these molecules cause metabolic disease is required. A major pathway by which excessive nutrients contribute to CMD is through oxidative stress. In this review, we discuss how oxidative stress can drive CMD and the role of aberrant nutrient metabolism and genetic risk factors and how they potentially interact to promote progression of MAFLD, CVD and CKD. This review will focus on genetic mutations that are known to alter nutrient metabolism. We discuss the major genetic risk factors for MAFLD, which include Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), Membrane Bound O-Acyltransferase Domain Containing 7 (MBOAT7) and Transmembrane 6 Superfamily Member 2 (TM6SF2). In addition, mutations that prevent nutrient uptake cause hypercholesterolemia that contributes to CVD. We also discuss the mechanisms by which MAFLD, CKD and CVD are mutually associated with one another. In addition, some of the genetic risk factors which are associated with MAFLD and CVD are also associated with CKD, while some genetic risk factors seem to dissociate one disease from the other. Through a better understanding of the causative effect of genetic mutations in CMD and how aberrant nutrient metabolism intersects with our genetics, novel therapies and precision approaches can be developed for treating CMD.

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