Type-2 diabetic aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 mutant mice (ALDH 2*2) exhibiting heart failure with preserved ejection fraction phenotype can be determined by exercise stress echocardiography
Pan G, Munukutla S, Kar A, Gardinier J, Thandavarayan RA, Palaniyandi SS. Type-2 diabetic aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 mutant mice (ALDH 2*2) exhibiting heart failure with preserved ejection fraction phenotype can be determined by exercise stress echocardiography. PLoS One. 2018;13(4):e0195796.
E487K point mutation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 (ALDH2*2) in East Asians intrinsically lowers ALDH2 activity. ALDH2*2 is associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetic patients exhibit heart failure of preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) i.e. while the systolic heart function is preserved in them, they may exhibit diastolic dysfunction, implying a jeopardized myocardial health. Currently, it is challenging to detect cardiac functional deterioration in diabetic mice. Stress echocardiography (echo) in the clinical set-up is a procedure used to measure cardiac reserve and impaired cardiac function in coronary artery diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that high-fat diet fed type-2 diabetic ALDH2*2 mutant mice exhibit HFpEF which can be measured by cardiac echo stress test methodology. We induced type-2 diabetes in 12-week-old male C57BL/6 and ALDH2*2 mice through a high-fat diet. At the end of 4 months of DM induction, we measured the cardiac function in diabetic and control mice of C57BL/6 and ALDH2*2 genotypes by conscious echo. Subsequently, we imposed exercise stress by allowing the mice to run on the treadmill until exhaustion. Post-stress, we measured their cardiac function again. Only after treadmill running, but not at rest, we found a significant decrease in % fractional shortening and % ejection fraction in ALDH2*2 mice with diabetes compared to C57BL/6 diabetic mice as well as non-diabetic (control) ALDH2*2 mice. The diabetic ALDH2*2 mice also exhibited poor maximal running speed and distance. Our data suggest that high-fat fed diabetic ALDH2*2 mice exhibit HFpEF and treadmill exercise stress echo test is able to determine this HFpEF in the diabetic ALDH2*2 mice.
Medical Subject Headings
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial; Animals; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Diet, High-Fat; Echocardiography, Stress; Heart Failure; Humans; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Phenotype; Point Mutation; Stroke Volume