A role for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 in angiotensin II-mediated decrease in angiogenesis of coronary endothelial cells

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Microvascular research


Diabetes-induced coronary endothelial cell (CEC) dysfunction contributes to diabetic heart diseases. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasoactive hormone, is upregulated in diabetes, and is reported to increase oxidative stress in CECs. 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), a key lipid peroxidation product, causes cellular dysfunction by forming adducts with proteins. By detoxifying 4HNE, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 reduces 4HNE mediated proteotoxicity and confers cytoprotection. Thus, we hypothesize that ALDH2 improves Ang II-mediated defective CEC angiogenesis by decreasing 4HNE-mediated cytotoxicity. To test our hypothesis, we treated the cultured mouse CECs (MCECs) with Ang II (0.1, 1 and 10 μM) for 2, 4 and 6 h. Next, we treated MCECs with Alda-1 (10 μM), an ALDH2 activator or disulfiram (2.5 μM)/ALDH2 siRNA (1.25 nM), the ALDH2 inhibitors, or blockers of angiotensin II type-1 and 2 receptors i.e. Losartan and PD0123319 respectively before challenging MCECs with 10 μM Ang II. We found that 10 μM Ang II decreased tube formation in MCECs with in vitro angiogenesis assay (P < .0005 vs control). 10 μM Ang II downregulated the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) (p < .005 for mRNA and P < .05 for protein) and VEGFR2 (p < .05 for mRNA and P < .005 for protein) as well as upregulated the levels of angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) (p < .05 for mRNA and P < .005 for protein) and 4HNE-adducts (P < .05 for protein) in cultured MCECs, compared to controls. ALDH2 inhibition with disulfiram/ALDH2 siRNA exacerbated 10 μM Ang II-induced decrease in coronary angiogenesis (P < .005) by decreasing the levels of VEGFR1 (P < .005 for mRNA and P < .05 for protein) and VEGFR2 (P < .05 for both mRNA and protein) and increasing the levels of AT2R (P < .05 for both mRNA and protein) and 4HNE-adducts (P < .05 for protein) relative to Ang II alone. AT2R inhibition per se improved angiogenesis in MCECs. Additionally, enhancing ALDH2 activity with Alda 1 rescued Ang II-induced decrease in angiogenesis by increasing the levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and decreasing the levels of AT2R. In summary, ALDH2 can be an important target in reducing 4HNE-induced proteotoxicity and improving angiogenesis in MCECs. Finally, we conclude ALDH2 activation can be a therapeutic strategy to improve coronary angiogenesis to ameliorate cardiometabolic diseases.

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