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Publication Title

Int J Mol Sci


To ameliorate diabetes mellitus-associated heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), we plan to lower diabetes-mediated oxidative stress-induced 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) accumulation by pharmacological agents that either decrease 4HNE generation or increase its detoxification.A cellular reactive carbonyl species (RCS), 4HNE, was significantly increased in diabetic hearts due to a diabetes-induced decrease in 4HNE detoxification by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2, a cardiac mitochondrial enzyme that metabolizes 4HNE. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced 4HNE is critical for diabetes-mediated cardiotoxicity and we hypothesize that lowering 4HNE ameliorates diabetes-associated HFpEF. We fed a high-fat diet to ALDH2*2 mice, which have intrinsically low ALDH2 activity, to induce type-2 diabetes. After 4 months of diabetes, the mice exhibited features of HFpEF along with increased 4HNE adducts, and we treated them with vehicle, empagliflozin (EMP) (3 mg/kg/d) to reduce 4HNE and Alda-1 (10 mg/kg/d), and ALDH2 activator to enhance ALDH2 activity as well as a combination of EMP + Alda-1 (E + A), via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. After 2 months of treatments, cardiac function was assessed by conscious echocardiography before and after exercise stress. EMP + Alda-1 improved exercise tolerance, diastolic and systolic function, 4HNE detoxification and cardiac liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in ALDH2*2 mice with diabetes-associated HFpEF. This combination was even more effective than EMP alone. Our data indicate that ALDH2 activation along with the treatment of hypoglycemic agents may be a salient strategy to alleviate diabetes-associated HFpEF.

Medical Subject Headings

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial; Animals; Benzhydryl Compounds; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Glucosides; Heart Failure; Hypoglycemic Agents; Mice; Stroke Volume

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