COVID-19 in solid organ transplant: A multi-center cohort study
Kates OS, Haydel BM, Florman SS, Rana MM, Chaudhry ZS, Ramesh MS, Safa K, Kotton CN, Blumberg EA, Besharatian BD, Tanna SD, Ison MG, Malinis M, Azar MM, Rakita RM, Morillas JA, Majeed A, Sait AS, Spaggiari M, Hemmige V, Mehta SA, Neumann H, Badami A, Goldman JD, Lala A, Hemmersbach-Miller M, McCort ME, Bajrovic V, Ortiz-Bautista C, Friedman-Moraco R, Sehgal S, Lease ED, Fisher CE, and Limaye AP. COVID-19 in solid organ transplant: A multi-center cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2020.
Clinical infectious diseases
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant reductions in transplantation, motivated in part by concerns of disproportionately more severe disease among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, clinical features, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in SOT recipients are not well-described.
METHODS: We performed a multi-center cohort study of SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Data were collected using standardized intake and 28-day follow-up electronic case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoint, 28-day mortality, among hospitalized patients.
RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. Median age was 58 (IQR 46-57), median time post-transplant was 5 years (IQR 2-10), 61% were male, and 92% had ≥1 underlying comorbidity. Among those hospitalized (376 [78%]), 117 (31%) required mechanical ventilation, and 77 (20.5%) died by 28 days after diagnosis. Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [aOR 3.0, 95%CI 1.7-5.5, p<0.001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95%CI 1.4-7.0, p=0.004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.2, p=0.018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, p=0.039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5, p=0.033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95%CI 1.1-7.5, p=0.027]) were independently associated with mortality. Multiple measures of immunosuppression intensity were not associated with mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 20.5%. Age and underlying comorbidities rather than immunosuppression intensity-related measures were major drivers of mortality.