Activity of cefepime/zidebactam against MDR Escherichia coli isolates harbouring a novel mechanism of resistance based on four-amino-acid inserts in PBP3
Bhagwat SS, Hariharan P, Joshi PR, Palwe SR, Shrivastava R, Patel MV, Devanga Ragupathi NK, Bakthavatchalam YD, Ramesh MS, Soman R, and Veeraraghavan B. Activity of cefepime/zidebactam against MDR Escherichia coli isolates harbouring a novel mechanism of resistance based on four-amino-acid inserts in PBP3. J Antimicrob Chemother 2020.
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
BACKGROUND: Recent reports reveal the emergence of Escherichia coli isolates harbouring a novel resistance mechanism based on four-amino-acid inserts in PBP3. These organisms concomitantly expressed ESBLs or/and serine-/metallo-carbapenemases and were phenotypically detected by elevated aztreonam/avibactam MICs.
OBJECTIVES: The in vitro activities of the investigational antibiotic cefepime/zidebactam and approved antibiotics (ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, imipenem/relebactam and others) were determined against E. coli isolates harbouring four-amino-acid inserts in PBP3.
METHODS: Whole-genome sequenced E. coli isolates (n = 89) collected from a large tertiary care hospital in Southern India (n = 64) and from 12 tertiary care hospitals located across India (n = 25) during 2016-18, showing aztreonam/avibactam MICs ≥1 mg/L (≥4 times the aztreonam epidemiological cut-off) were included in this study. The MICs of antibiotics were determined using the reference broth microdilution method.
RESULTS: Four-amino-acid inserts [YRIK (n = 30) and YRIN (n = 53)] were found in 83/89 isolates. Among 83 isolates, 65 carried carbapenemase genes [blaNDM (n = 39), blaOXA-48-like (n = 11) and blaNDM + blaOXA-48-like (n = 15)] and 18 isolates produced ESBLs/class C β-lactamases only. At least 16 unique STs were noted. Cefepime/zidebactam demonstrated potent activity, with all isolates inhibited at ≤1 mg/L. Comparator antibiotics including ceftazidime/avibactam and imipenem/relebactam showed limited activities.
CONCLUSIONS: E. coli isolates concurrently harbouring four-amino-acid inserts in PBP3 and NDM are an emerging therapeutic challenge. Assisted by the PBP2-binding action of zidebactam, the cefepime/zidebactam combination overcomes both target modification (PBP3 insert)- and carbapenemase (NDM)-mediated resistance mechanisms in E. coli.
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