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Open Forum Infect Dis


BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are major therapeutic challenges. Prospective contemporary data characterizing the clinical and molecular epidemiology of VRE bloodstream infections (BSIs) are lacking.

METHODS: The Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcal BSI Outcomes Study (VENOUS I) is a prospective observational cohort of adult patients with enterococcal BSI in 11 US hospitals. We included patients with Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium BSI with ≥1 follow-up blood culture(s) within 7 days and availability of isolate(s) for further characterization. The primary study outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were mortality at days 4, 7, 10, 12, and 15 after index blood culture. A desirability of outcome ranking was constructed to assess the association of vancomycin resistance with outcomes. All index isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing.

RESULTS: Forty-two of 232 (18%) patients died in hospital and 39 (17%) exhibited microbiological failure (lack of clearance in the first 4 days). Neutropenia (hazard ratio [HR], 3.13), microbiological failure (HR, 2.4), VRE BSI (HR, 2.13), use of urinary catheter (HR, 1.85), and Pitt BSI score ≥2 (HR, 1.83) were significant predictors of in-hospital mortality. Microbiological failure was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with E faecium bacteremia (HR, 5.03). The impact of vancomycin resistance on mortality in our cohort changed throughout the course of hospitalization. Enterococcus faecalis sequence type 6 was a predominant multidrug-resistant lineage, whereas a heterogeneous genomic population of E faecium was identified.

CONCLUSIONS: Failure of early eradication of VRE from the bloodstream is a major factor associated with poor outcomes.

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