Suleyman G, Fadel R, Brar I, Kassab R, Khansa R, Sturla N, Alsaadi A, Latack K, Miller J, Tibbetts R, Samuel L, Alangaden G, and Ramesh M. Risk Factors Associated With Hospitalization and Death in COVID-19 Breakthrough Infections. Open Forum Infect Dis 2022; 9(5):ofac116.
Open Forum Infect Dis
BACKGROUND: Characterizations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine breakthrough infections are limited. We aim to characterize breakthrough infections and identify risk factors associated with outcomes.
METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive fully vaccinated patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a multicenter academic center in Southeast Michigan, between December 30, 2020, and September 15, 2021.
RESULTS: A total of 982 patients were identified; the mean age was 57.9 years, 565 (59%) were female, 774 (79%) were White, and 255 (26%) were health care workers (HCWs). The median number of comorbidities was 2; 225 (23%) were immunocompromised. BNT162b2 was administered to 737 (75%) individuals. The mean time to SARS-CoV-2 detection was 135 days. The majority were asymptomatic or exhibited mild to moderate disease, 154 (16%) required hospitalization, 127 (13%) had severe-critical illness, and 19 (2%) died. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.07; P < .001), cardiovascular disease (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.55-5.89; P = .001), and immunocompromised status (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.70-3.90; P < .001) were independent risk factors for hospitalization. Additionally, age (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .006) was significantly associated with mortality. HCWs (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.50; P = .002) were less likely to be hospitalized, and prior receipt of BNT162b2 was associated with lower odds of hospitalization (OR, 0.436; 95% CI, 0.303-0.626; P < .001) and/or death (OR, 0.360; 95% CI, 0.145-0.898; P = .029).
CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines remain effective at attenuating disease severity. However, patients with breakthrough infections necessitating hospitalization may benefit from early treatment modalities and COVID-19-mitigating strategies, especially in areas with substantial or high transmission rates.