Household Influenza Transmission and Healthcare Resource Utilization Among Patients Treated with Baloxavir vs Oseltamivir: A United States Outpatient Prospective Survey

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Infect Dis Ther


INTRODUCTION: Influenza is a common, seasonal infectious disease with broad medical, economic, and social consequences. Real-world evidence on the effect of influenza treatment on household transmission and healthcare resource utilization is limited in outpatient settings in the USA. This study examined the real-world effectiveness of baloxavir vs oseltamivir in reducing influenza household transmission and healthcare resource utilization.

METHODS: This prospective electronic survey on patient-reported outcomes was conducted between October 2022 and May 2023 via CVS Pharmacy in the USA. Adult participants (≥ 18 years old) were eligible if they filled a prescription for baloxavir or oseltamivir at a CVS Pharmacy within 2 days of influenza symptom onset. Participant demographics, household transmission, and all-cause healthcare resource utilization were collected. Transmission and utilization outcomes were assessed using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests.

RESULTS: Of 87,871 unique patients contacted, 1346 (1.5%) consented. Of 374 eligible patients, 286 (90 baloxavir- and 196 oseltamivir-treated patients) completed the survey and were included in the analysis. Mean age of participants was 45.4 years, 65.6% were female, and 86.7% were White. Lower household transmission was observed with baloxavir compared with oseltamivir therapy (17.8% vs 26.5%; relative risk = 0.67; 95% CI 0.41-1.11). Healthcare resource utilization, particularly emergency department visits (0.0% vs 4.6%), was also numerically lower in the baloxavir-treated group; no hospitalizations were reported in either cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this real-world study suggest that antiviral treatment of influenza with baloxavir may decrease household transmission and reduce healthcare resource utilization compared with oseltamivir.

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ePub ahead of print