Impact of Reported β-Lactam Allergy on Management of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections
Veve MP, January SE, Kenney RM, Zoratti EM, Zervos MJ, and Davis SL. Impact of Reported beta-Lactam Allergy on Management of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Bloodstream Infections J Pharm Pract 2019; Epub ahead of print.
J Pharm Pract
BACKGROUND: Antistaphylococcal β-lactams antibiotics are the preferred treatment for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections. Patient-reported β-lactam allergies may complicate antibiotic decision-making and delay optimal therapy, with potential implications on patient outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of reported β-lactam allergies on the receipt of optimal therapy and outcomes for MSSA bloodstream infections (BSI).
METHODS: Retrospective, matched cohort of MSSA BSI patients with and without a reported β-lactam allergy. The primary end point was receipt of optimal therapy, defined as an antistaphylococcal β-lactam.
RESULTS: Two hundred twelve patients were included: 53 with reported β-lactam allergy and 159 without β-lactam allergy. Commonly reported β-lactam allergies were 26 (49%) immune-mediated reaction and 8 (15%) intolerance, with 19 (36%) having no documented reaction. Optimal antibiotics were given to 135 patients without a β-lactam allergy and 37 patients with a reported β-lactam allergy (85% vs 70%, P = .015). Among reported β-lactam allergy patients, those without a documented reaction were less likely to receive optimal therapy (47% vs 79 %, P = .042). Reported β-lactam allergy was not associated with clinical response ( P = .61) or MSSA-related mortality ( P = .83). When adjusting for immunosuppression, variables independently associated with optimal therapy were β-lactam allergy (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.6) and infectious diseases consultation (adjOR, 6.1; 95%CI, 2.7-13.9). Optimal antibiotic use was associated with decreased all-cause 90-day mortality (adjOR, 0.23; 95%CI, 0.09-0.54).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with reported β-lactam allergies, particularly those without a documented reaction, were less likely to receive optimal antibiotics for MSSA BSI. Patient outcomes may be improved with enhanced quality of allergy history and routine infectious disease consultation.
ePub ahead of print