Safety and efficacy of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy in an academic infectious disease clinic

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Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics


WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral therapy (OPAT) has become a safe and effective modality for patients requiring intravenous or prolonged antimicrobial therapy since the 1970s. It is being increasingly utilized in various settings; however, studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of clinic-based OPAT are limited. Since 2012, patients being considered for OPAT have required an infectious disease (ID) consultation at our institution. Candidates receiving once-daily antimicrobials who were ineligible for home infusion or nursing home placement as determined by their insurance companies and those who preferred the clinic over nursing home or home infusion were referred to the ID clinic. This study assessed the safety and outcome of patients receiving OPAT in an academic inner-city ID clinic in Detroit, Michigan.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of electronic medical records of patients, identified through clinic records, who received at least 2 days of OPAT from December 2012 to December 2015. Demographics, types of infections, antimicrobial regimen used, adverse events and outcome were evaluated.

RESULTS: A total of 122 cases were identified during the study period. Mean age was 62 years with 55% male; 102 (84%) of 122 patients had peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Fifty-five per cent of patients participated in the clinic-based OPAT programme for insurance reasons, and 43% preferred the clinic over nursing home or home infusion. The most common infections were bone and joint (36%), followed by skin and soft tissue (18%) and urinary tract infections (12%). Ertapenem (44%) and daptomycin (41%) alone or in combination were used most frequently with 40% of patients receiving at least 4 weeks of treatment. Thirteen patients (11%) experienced one or more adverse drug events on daptomycin and/or ertapenem; of these, nine (69%) patients were receiving daptomycin monotherapy. Gastrointestinal symptoms (29%), cramping and myalgias (29%) and asymptomatic creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (24%) were the most common adverse events. Three (3%) of 102 patients had PICC-related complications. Fourteen (88%) of 16 patients with adverse events or PICC-related complications required changing or stopping antibiotics; two (2%) had infection-related readmission. Conversely, 113 (93%) of 122 patients who completed treatment were considered cured and none had treatment failure at the end of 30 days of treatment. No patients died as a result of treatment or infection-related complications.

WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Outpatient parenteral therapy in our academic ID clinic was a safe and effective alternative to home infusion or skilled nursing facilities for patients requiring long-term antibiotics with few adverse events and complications.

Medical Subject Headings

Anti-Bacterial Agents; Communicable Diseases; Cross-Sectional Studies; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Female; Humans; Male; Michigan; Middle Aged; Outpatients; Retrospective Studies

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