Carney BJ, Wang TF, Ren S, George G, Al Homssi A, Gaddh M, Connolly GC, Shah V, Bogue T, Bartosic A, Neuberg D, Baumann Kreuziger L, and Zwicker JI. Anticoagulation in cancer-associated thromboembolism with thrombocytopenia: a prospective, multi-center cohort study. Blood Adv 2021.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with concurrent thrombocytopenia is frequently encountered in patients with cancer. Therapeutic anticoagulation in the setting of thrombocytopenia is associated with a high risk of hemorrhage. Retrospective analyses suggest the utility of modified-dose anticoagulation in this population. To assess the incidence of hemorrhage or thrombosis according to anticoagulation strategy, we performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Patients with active malignancy, acute VTE, and concurrent thrombocytopenia (platelet count/µL) were enrolled. The cumulative incidences of hemorrhage or recurrent VTE were determined considering death as a competing risk. Primary outcomes were centrally adjudicated and comparisons made according to initial treatment with full-dose or modified-dose anticoagulation. A total of 121 patients were enrolled at 6 hospitals. Seventy-five patients were initially treated with full-dose anticoagulation (62%) and 33 (27%) with modified-dose anticoagulation; 13 (11%) patients received no anticoagulation. Most patients who received modified-dose anticoagulation had a hematologic malignancy (31 of 33 [94%]) and an acute deep vein thrombosis (28 of 33 [85%]). In patients who initially received full-dose anticoagulation, the cumulative incidence of major hemorrhage at 60 days was 12.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-20.8) and 6.6% (95% CI, 2.4-15.7) in those who received modified-dose anticoagulation (Fine-Gray hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.21-3.93). The cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE at 60 days in patients who initially received full-dose anticoagulation was 5.6% (95% CI, 0.2-11) and 0% in patients who received modified-dose anticoagulation. In conclusion, modified-dose anticoagulation appears to be a safe alternative to therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with cancer who develop deep vein thrombosis in the setting of thrombocytopenia.
ePub ahead of print