Waterpipe Use and Its Cardiovascular Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control, Cross-Sectional, and Non-Randomized Studies
Mahfooz K, Vasavada AM, Joshi A, Pichuthirumalai S, Andani R, Rajotia A, Hans A, Mandalia B, Dayama N, Younas Z, Hafeez N, Bheemisetty N, Patel Y, Tumkur Ranganathan H, and Sodala A. Waterpipe Use and Its Cardiovascular Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control, Cross-Sectional, and Non-Randomized Studies. Cureus 2023.
Approximately 100 million people globally smoke cigarettes, making it a significant and quickly spreading global tobacco epidemic. Substance use disorders are frequently evaluated by non-randomized studies. Tobacco use and its impacts on the cardiovascular system were the subjects of a comprehensive search across five electronic databases: Cochrane, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and PubMed. The findings demonstrated that waterpipe smokers in comparison to non-smokers have immediate elevations in heart rate and blood pressure, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein, higher levels of triglycerides, higher levels of fasting blood glucose, and a higher heart rate. Users of waterpipes and cigarettes had similar average heart rates, blood pressure, and lipid levels, with the exception that waterpipe smokers had greater total cholesterol. Smoking a waterpipe has significant negative effects on the cardiovascular system comparable to cigarette smoking, and non-randomized studies proved to yield substantial evidence related to its cardiovascular effects. Such study designs can be used to evaluate substance use and its cardiovascular impact.