Oral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) for the Treatment of Anemia in Patients with CKD

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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Roxadustat (FG-4592), an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis, regulates iron metabolism, and reduces hepcidin, was evaluated in this phase 2b study for safety, efficacy, optimal dose, and dose frequency in patients with nondialysis CKD.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The 145 patients with nondialysis CKD and hemoglobin ≤10.5 g/dl were randomized into one of six cohorts of approximately 24 patients each with varying roxadustat starting doses (tiered weight and fixed amounts) and frequencies (two and three times weekly) followed by hemoglobin maintenance with roxadustat one to three times weekly. Treatment duration was 16 or 24 weeks. Intravenous iron was prohibited. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving hemoglobin increase of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline and hemoglobin of ≥11.0 g/dl by week 17 (16 weeks of treatment). Secondary analyses included mean hemoglobin change from baseline, iron utilization, and serum lipids. Safety was evaluated by frequency/severity of adverse events.

RESULTS: Of the 145 patients enrolled, 143 were evaluable for efficacy. Overall, 92% of patients achieved hemoglobin response. Higher compared with lower starting doses led to earlier achievement of hemoglobin response. Roxadustat-induced hemoglobin increases were independent of baseline C-reactive protein levels and iron repletion status. Overall, over the first 16 treatment weeks, hepcidin levels decreased by 16.9% (P=0.004), reticulocyte hemoglobin content was maintained, and hemoglobin increased by a mean (±SD) of 1.83 (±0.09) g/dl (P

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nondialysis CKD who were anemic, various starting dose regimens of roxadustat were well tolerated and achieved anemia correction with reduced serum hepcidin levels. After anemia correction, hemoglobin was maintained by roxadustat at various dose frequencies without intravenous iron supplementation.

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Administration, Oral; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anemia; C-Reactive Protein; Cholesterol; Enzyme Inhibitors; Female; Glycine; Hemoglobins; Hepcidins; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases; Isoquinolines; Male; Middle Aged; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic

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