Incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients

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Transplantation proceedings


UNLABELLED: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is responsible for one-third of acute kidney injuries (AKI) in the hospital setting. The incidence of CIN varies from 3% to 30%, depending on the preexisting risk factors, with higher incidence noted with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and older age. Though CIN risk factors are common in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), data about incidence of CIN in this population are sparse.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 124 consecutive patients transplanted at our center between January 2002 and December 2013 and received iodinated intravascular contrast with stable kidney function prior to contrast administration. CIN was defined as either an absolute rise in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or a ≥ 25% drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after contrast administration.

RESULTS: Seven of 124 (5.64%) patients developed CIN. Kidney function returned to baseline in 5 of the 7 patients within 3 weeks. In 2 patients serum creatinine remained elevated due to recurrent AKI episodes from other causes. Dialysis was not required in any patient. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) were being used in 95% patients at the time of contrast administration. Diabetes mellitus, baseline serum creatinine, age, race, gender, and the use of ACE inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, diuretic, or prophylaxis with intravenous hydration ± N-acetylcysteine did not affect the incidence of CIN.

CONCLUSION: Incidence of CIN in KTRs was low in our study (5.6%), much less than previously reported. This low incidence may be related to the high baseline eGFR (>70 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and use of hypo-osmolar contrast in our patients. In KTRs with baseline eGFR >70 mL/min, the incidence of CIN is low despite the concurrent use of nephrotoxic CNI.

Medical Subject Headings

Acute Kidney Injury; Contrast Media; Female; Humans; Incidence; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Kidney Transplantation; Male; Middle Aged; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Transplant Recipients; United States

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