Preventing Hepatitis B in the Dialysis Unit
Soi V, and Soman S. Preventing Hepatitis B in the Dialysis Unit. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2019; 26(3):179-184.
Advances in chronic kidney disease
Patients with end-stage renal disease are at risk for contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV) because of their exposure to blood products and compromised immune status. Despite a decrease in the incidence of HBV infection, continued vigilance in the form of surveillance is imperative in preventing the spread of this robust DNA virus. Regular review of serologic markers with isolation and decontamination practices as appropriate are paramount to maintaining a safe environment for dialysis to occur. Vaccination response rates are known to be suboptimal in the hemodialysis population. This has been attributed to altered cellular and humoral immunity. Vaccine response rates are improved with modification of the vaccine schedule. Explicit care must be taken to ensure patients are screened on entry to the dialysis unit especially after hospitalization, and periodically thereafter. This review discusses HBV in terms of epidemiology, prevention strategies, vaccination options, and identifying serologic markers. Finally, our experience with incorporation of an alert system incorporated within the electronic medical record that highlights markers of infection and immunity is described.