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Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease


Biofilm/bioslime is a complex, dynamically interactive multicellular community protected within a heterogeneous exopolysaccharide matrix. Its formation results in the genesis or perpetuation of infection, enhancement of inflammation, and tissue damage or death. Industrial financial losses result from biofilm/bioslime formation; however, the consequences in the medical realm are equally devastating. The relation of biofilm to patients with chronic kidney disease is often covert and extends beyond the colonization of hemodialysis circuits and vascular accesses. Urinary tract device- and vascular access-related biofilms may also increase the burden of cardiovascular risk borne by chronic kidney disease patients, synergizing with the chronic inflammatory state already incurred by these individuals. Current anti-infective strategies are aimed at rapidly killing planktonic forms of microorganisms without specifically targeting the sessile forms that perpetuate their planktonic brethren. Future treatments of infections must ultimately target these reservoirs of infection aiming for their complete eradication. Presently, included among these novel weapons of microdestruction are molecular blockading techniques, electrical enhancement of anti-infectives, and bacterial interference. Nonetheless, the best approach against biofilm formation remains the prevention of microbial colonization, which can be largely by sterile handling of patient-related devices, the most well-established biofilm reservoirs. © 2006 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

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