Epidemiology and Prognostic Importance of Atrial Fibrillation in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Meta-Analysis
Thongprayoon C, Chokesuwattanaskul R, Bathini T, Khoury NJ, Sharma K, Ungprasert P, Prasitlumkum N, Aeddula NR, Watthanasuntorn K, Salim SA, Kaewput W, Koller FL, and Cheungpasitporn W. Epidemiology and prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation in kidney transplant recipients: A meta-analysis. J Clin Med 2018; 7(10).
J Clin Med
This meta-analysis was conducted with the aims to summarize all available evidence on (1) prevalence of pre-existing atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or incidence of AF following kidney transplantation; (2) the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with AF; and (3) the trends of estimated incidence of AF following kidney transplantation over time. A literature search was conducted utilizing MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database from inception through March 2018. We included studies that reported (1) prevalence of pre-existing AF or incidence of AF following kidney transplantation or (2) outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with AF. Effect estimates from the individual study were extracted and combined utilizing random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42018086192). Eight cohort studies with 137,709 kidney transplant recipients were enrolled. Overall, the pooled estimated prevalence of pre-existing AF in patients undergoing kidney transplantation was 7.0% (95% CI: 5.6⁻8.8%) and pooled estimated incidence of AF following kidney transplantation was 4.9% (95% CI: 1.7⁻13.0%). Meta-regression analyses were performed and showed no significant correlations between year of study and either prevalence of pre-existing AF (p = 0.93) or post-operative AF after kidney transplantation (p = 0.16). The pooled odds ratios (OR) of mortality among kidney transplant recipients with AF was 1.86 (3 studies; 95% CI: 1.03⁻3.35). In addition, AF is also associated with death-censored allograft loss (2 studies; OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02⁻2.35) and stroke (3 studies; OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.11⁻5.78) among kidney transplant recipients. Despite advances in medicine, incidence of AF following kidney transplant does not seem to decrease over time. In addition, there is a significant association of AF with increased mortality, allograft loss, and stroke after kidney transplantation.