Daifi C, Feldpausch B, Roa P, Yee J. Implementation of a Clinical Pharmacist in a Hemodialysis Facility: A Quality Improvement Report. Kidney Medicine 2021; 3(2):241-247.e1.
Rationale & Objective: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have complicated disease states, placing them at higher risk for medication-related problems, medication discrepancies, and nonadherence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacist in a single HD facility by assessing the efficacy of medication reconciliation in HD patients and evaluating the potential impact on a single health care system. Study Design: Retrospective study. Setting & Participants: Greenfield Health Systems, a wholly owned subsidiary of Henry Ford Health, operates 14 HD facilities throughout Southeast Michigan. The West Pavilion facility is located in Detroit, MI. Patients with end-stage kidney disease included in the study had a minimum of 4 encounters with the clinical pharmacist or pharmacy interns between August 2017 and October 2018. Exposure: A clinical pharmacist performed medication reconciliation and medication reviews with HD patients to assess medication-related problems and identify gaps in care. Interventions made by the pharmacist were prespecified through a collaborative practice agreement. Outcomes: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacist in an HD facility by assessing the efficacy of medication reconciliation in HD patients and evaluating the potential impact on this health system through an estimated cost avoidance. Analytical Approach: Descriptive statistics were used to collect medication-related problems and classified based on a modified Hepler-Strand approach. Results: There were 1,403 medication-related problems, with an average of 8.96 medication-related problems per patient. Adherence was the most common medication-related problem (31%). Antihypertensive medication was the most common drug class in which the pharmacist intervened (37%), followed by vitamin D analogues and calcimimetics (29%). A projected total of US $447,355 was saved. Limitations: Retrospective analysis of observational data and descriptive statistics with the potential for residual bias and confounding. Conclusions: Pharmacists in HD facilities have a positive influence on HD patients through medication management that results in cost savings.