Mohindra AR, Lee MW, Visvesvara G, Moura H, Parasuraman R, Leitch GJ, Xiao L, Yee J, Del Busto R. Disseminated microsporidiosis in a renal transplant recipient. Transplant Infectious Disease 2002; 4(2):102-107.
Transplant Infectious Disease
Disseminated microsporidiosis is diagnosed uncommonly in patients not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a case of disseminated microsporidiosis in a renal transplant recipient who was seronegative for HIV. Chromotrope-based stains were positive for microsporidia in urine, stools, sputum, and conjunctival scrapings. Electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, and cultures of renal tissue identified the organism as Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The patient was treated with oral albendazole and topical fumagillin with clinical improvement. In addition, she underwent a transplant nephrectomy and immunosuppressive therapy was withdrawn. Follow-up samples were negative for microsporidia. However, the patient developed central nervous system manifestations and died. An autopsy brain tissue specimen demonstrated E cuniculi by immunofluorescent staining. Disseminated microsporidiosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiorgan involvement in renal allograft recipients.