Safely correct hyponatremia with continuous renal replacement therapy: A flexible, all-purpose method based on the mixing paradigm
Chen S, Yee J, and Chiaramonte R. Safely correct hyponatremia with continuous renal replacement therapy: A flexible, all-purpose method based on the mixing paradigm. Physiol Rep 2023; 11(1):e15496.
Treating chronic hyponatremia by continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is challenging because the gradient between a replacement fluid's [sodium] and a patient's serum sodium can be steep, risking too rapid of a correction rate with possible consequences. Besides CRRT, other gains and losses of sodium- and potassium-containing solutions, like intravenous fluid and urine output, affect the correction of serum sodium over time, known as osmotherapy. The way these fluids interact and contribute to the sodium/potassium/water balance can be parsed as a mixing problem. As Na/K/H(2) O are added, mixed in the body, and drained via CRRT, the net balance of solutes must be related to the change in serum sodium, expressible as a differential equation. Its solution has many variables, one of which is the sodium correction rate, but all variables can be evaluated by a root-finding technique. The mixing paradigm is proved to replicate the established equations of osmotherapy, as in the special case of a steady volume. The flexibility to solve for any variable broadens our treatment options. If the pre-filter replacement fluid cannot be diluted, then we can compensate by calculating the CRRT blood flow rate needed. Or we can deduce the infusion rate of dextrose 5% water, post-filter, to appropriately slow the rise in serum sodium. In conclusion, the mixing model is a generalizable and practical tool to analyze patient scenarios of greater complexity than before, to help doctors customize a CRRT prescription to safely and effectively reach the serum sodium target.
Medical Subject Headings
Humans; Hyponatremia; Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy; Sodium; Water-Electrolyte Balance; Water; Acute Kidney Injury