Novel predictors of permanent pacemaker implantation following transcatheter aortic valve replacement

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World J Cardiol


BACKGROUND: Conduction and rhythm abnormalities requiring permanent pacemakers (PPM) are short-term complications following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and their clinical outcomes remain conflicting. Potential novel predictors of post-TAVR PPM, like QRS duration, QTc prolongation, and supraventricular arrhythmias, have been poorly studied.

AIM: To evaluate the effects of baseline nonspecific interventricular conduction delay and supraventricular arrhythmia on post-TAVR PPM requirement and determine the impact of PPM implantation on clinical outcomes.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study that identified patients with TAVR between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2019. The group was dichotomized into those with post-TAVR PPM and those without PPM. Both groups were followed for one year.

RESULTS: Out of the 357 patients that met inclusion criteria, the mean age was 80 years, 188 (52.7%) were male, and 57 (16%) had a PPM implantation. Baseline demographics, valve type, and cardiovascular risk factors were similar except for type II diabetes mellitus (DM), which was more prevalent in the PPM cohort (59.6% vs 40.7%; P = 0.009). The PPM cohort had a significantly higher rate of pre-procedure right bundle branch block, prolonged QRS > 120 ms, prolonged QTc > 470 ms, and supraventricular arrhythmias. There was a consistently significant increase in the odds ratio (OR) of PPM implantation for every 20 ms increase in the QRS duration above 100 ms: QRS 101-120 [OR: 2.44; confidence intervals (CI): 1.14-5.25; P = 0.022], QRS 121-140 (OR: 3.25; CI: 1.32-7.98; P = 0.010), QRS 141-160 (OR: 6.98; CI: 3.10-15.61; P < 0.001). After model adjustment for baseline risk factors, the OR remained significant for type II DM (aOR: 2.16; CI: 1.18-3.94; P = 0.012), QRS > 120 (aOR: 2.18; CI: 1.02-4.66; P = 0.045) and marginally significant for supraventricular arrhythmias (aOR: 1.82; CI: 0.97-3.42; P = 0.062). The PPM cohort had a higher adjusted OR of heart failure (HF) hospitalization (aOR: 2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3; P = 0.022) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) (aOR: 3.9; CI: 1.1-14; P = 0.031) without any difference in mortality (aOR: 1.1; CI: 0.5-2.7; P = 0.796) at one year.

CONCLUSION: Pre-TAVR type II DM and QRS duration > 120, regardless of the presence of bundle branch blocks, are predictors of post-TAVR PPM. At 1-year post-TAVR, patients with PPM have higher odds of HF hospitalization and MI.

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