Efficacy of Istradefylline, an Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist, as Adjunctive Therapy to Levodopa in Parkinson's Disease: A Pooled Analysis of 8 Phase 2b/3 Trials

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J Parkinsons Dis


BACKGROUND: Istradefylline is a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experiencing OFF episodes while on levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor.

OBJECTIVE: This pooled analysis of eight randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2b/3 studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of istradefylline.

METHODS: Istradefylline was evaluated in PD patients receiving levodopa with carbidopa/benserazide and experiencing motor fluctuations. Eight 12- or 16-week trials were conducted (n = 3,245); four of these studies were the basis for istradefylline's FDA approval. Change in OFF time as assessed in patient-completed 24-h PD diaries at Week 12 was the primary endpoint. All studies were designed with common methodology, thereby permitting pooling of data. Pooled analysis results from once-daily oral istradefylline (20 and 40 mg/day) and placebo were evaluated using a mixed-model repeated-measures approach including study as a factor.

RESULTS: Among 2,719 patients (placebo, n = 992; 20 mg/day, n = 848; 40 mg/day, n = 879), OFF hours/day were reduced at Week 12 at istradefylline dosages of 20 mg/day (least-squares mean difference [LSMD] from placebo in reduction from baseline [95%CI], -0.38 h [-0.61, -0.15]) and 40 mg/day (-0.45 h [-0.68, -0.22], p < 0.0001); ON time without troublesome dyskinesia (ON-WoTD) significantly increased. Similar results were found in the four-study pool (OFF hours/day, 20 mg/day, -0.75 h [-1.10, -0.40]; 40 mg/day, -0.82 h [-1.17, -0.47]). Istradefylline was generally well-tolerated; the average study completion rate among istradefylline-treated patients across all studies was 89.2%. Dyskinesia was the most frequent adverse event (placebo, 9.6%; 20 mg/day, 16.1%; 40 mg/day, 17.7%).

CONCLUSION: In this pooled analysis, istradefylline significantly improved OFF time and ON-WoTD relative to placebo and was well-tolerated.

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ePub ahead of print





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