Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America


Metabolic aberrations impact the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and possibly can provide clues for new treatment strategies. Using untargeted metabolomics, we measured serum metabolites from 35 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 14 healthy age-matched controls. Of 632 known metabolites detected, 60 were significantly altered in RRMS. Bioinformatics analysis identified an altered metabotype in patients with RRMS, represented by four changed metabolic pathways of glycerophospholipid, citrate cycle, sphingolipid, and pyruvate metabolism. Interestingly, the common upstream metabolic pathway feeding these four pathways is the glycolysis pathway. Real-time bioenergetic analysis of the patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed enhanced glycolysis, supporting the altered metabolic state of immune cells. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice treated with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose ameliorated the disease progression and inhibited the disease pathology significantly by promoting the antiinflammatory phenotype of monocytes/macrophage in the central nervous system. Our study provided a proof of principle for how a blood-based metabolomic approach using patient samples could lead to the identification of a therapeutic target for developing potential therapy.

Medical Subject Headings

Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Antimetabolites; Deoxyglucose; Drug Development; Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental; Glycolysis; Humans; Leukocytes, Mononuclear; Metabolomics; Mice; Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.