Oral administration of S-nitroso-L-glutathione (GSNO) provides anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects during ocular bacterial infections

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Cellular and molecular life sciences


Bacterial endophthalmitis is a severe complication of eye surgeries that can lead to vision loss. Current treatment involves intravitreal antibiotic injections that control bacterial growth but not inflammation. To identify newer therapeutic targets to promote inflammation resolution in endophthalmitis, we recently employed an untargeted metabolomics approach. This led to the discovery that the levels of S-nitroso-L-glutathione (GSNO) were significantly reduced in an experimental murine Staphylococcus aureus (SA) endophthalmitis model. In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether GSNO supplementation via different routes (oral, intravitreal) provides protection during bacterial endophthalmitis. Our results show that prophylactic administration of GSNO via intravitreal injections ameliorated SA endophthalmitis. Therapeutically, oral administration of GSNO was found to be most effective in reducing intraocular inflammation and bacterial burden. Moreover, oral GSNO treatment synergized with intravitreal antibiotic injections in reducing the severity of endophthalmitis. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using cultured human retinal Muller glia and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells showed that GSNO treatment reduced SA-induced inflammatory mediators and cell death. Notably, both in-vivo and ex-vivo data showed that GSNO strengthened the outer blood-retinal barrier during endophthalmitis. Collectively, our study demonstrates GSNO as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of intraocular infections due to its dual anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties.

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Mice; Humans; Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Endophthalmitis; Staphylococcal Infections; Inflammation; Staphylococcus aureus; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Glutathione; Eye Infections, Bacterial; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Administration, Oral

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