PIF* promotes brain re-myelination locally while regulating systemic inflammation- clinically relevant multiple sclerosis Msmegmatis model

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Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role. Synthetic PIF (PIF) duplicates endogenous peptide's protective effect in pre-clinical autoimmune and transplantation models. PIF protects against brain hypoxia-ischemia by directly targeting microglia and neurons. In chronic experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model PIF reverses paralysis while promoting neural repair. Herein we report that PIF directly promotes brain re-myelination and reverses paralysis in relapsing remitting EAE MS model. PIF crosses the blood-brain barrier targeting microglia. Systemically, PIF decreases pro-inflammatory IL23/IL17 cytokines, while preserving CNS-specific T-cell repertoire. Global brain gene analysis revealed that PIF regulates critical Na+/K+/Ca++ ions, amino acid and glucose transport genes expression. Further, PIF modulates oxidative stress, DNA methylation, cell cycle regulation, and protein ubiquitination while regulating multiple genes. In cultured astrocytes, PIF promotes BDNF-myelin synthesis promoter and SLC2A1 (glucose transport) while reducing deleterious E2F5, and HSP90ab1 (oxidative stress) genes expression. In cultured microglia, PIF increases anti-inflammatory IL10 while reducing pro-inflammatory IFNγ expression. Collectively, PIF promotes brain re-myelination and neuroprotection in relapsing remitting EAE MS model. Coupled with ongoing, Fast-Track FDA approved clinical trial, NCT#02239562 (immune disorder), current data supports PIF's translation for neurodegenerative disorders therapy.


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Animals; Brain; Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental; Female; Gene Expression Profiling; Inflammation; Mice; Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting; Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous; Mycobacterium smegmatis; Myelin Sheath; Peptides; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Transcriptome

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