DeepInfusion: A dynamic infusion based-neuro-symbolic AI model for segmentation of intracranial aneurysms

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The detection and segmentation of cerebral aneurysms is a crucial step in the development of a clinical decision support system for estimating aneurysm rupture risk. However, accurately identifying and segmenting regions of interest in two-dimensional (2D) medical images is often challenging, particularly when using deep learning (DL) methods on small datasets with limited annotated data. The accuracy of DL approaches is often affected by the availability of large, annotated training datasets that are required for effective deep learning. Additionally, when using DL to differentiate aneurysms from arterial loops in 2D DSA images, DL can fail to detect aneurysms in areas where dye concentration is low. To address these issues and enhance the reliability and accuracy of aneurysm detection and segmentation methods, incorporating medical expert-advised, hand-crafted features can provide a clinical perspective to DL methods. This approach can help to improve the performance of DL methods by providing additional information that is not captured in the data. To this end, a novel Neuro-symbolic AI-based DeepInfusion model is proposed which allows for the infusion of human intellect through hand-crafted features into deep neural networks (DNNs), thus combining the strengths of DL with the knowledge and expertise of medical professionals. The proposed approach includes a novel technique for dynamic layer selection and feature weight adjustment during the model infusion process. The performance of the DeepInfusion model is evaluated on an in-house prepared dataset of 409 DSA images, and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the segmentation of cerebral aneurysms. The model achieves an IOU score of 96.76% and an F1-score of 94.15% on unseen DSA images. The model is also tested on two publicly available datasets of Kvasir-SEG polyp and DRIVE for vessel segmentation of retinal images. The results show a significant improvement compared to existing methods, which indicates the generalizability of the approach in medical segmentation. The complete code for DeepInfusion is available on our GitHub repository at