Stellate Multiform Amelanotic Choroidopathy (SMACH). Clinical and Multimodal Imaging Features

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)


PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and multimodal imaging features of stellate multiform amelanotic choroidopathy (SMACH; also known as serous maculopathy due to aspecific choroidopathy).

METHODS: Retrospective observational case series of eyes presenting with SMACH. Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography (OCTA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was analyzed.

RESULTS: Eighteen eyes from 18 patients (mean age: 28±19 years) were included. The mean follow-up duration was 9 years. Ophthalmoscopy showed a yellowish-orange, dendriform choroidal lesion. At presentation, subretinal fluid (SRF) was seen in 10/18 cases (56%). Eight patients (44%) showed no evidence of SRF during a mean follow-up of 6 years. Cross-sectional OCT showed hyperreflective fibrous-like changes within the inner choroid with choriocapillaris flow preservation on OCTA. En face OCT showed a hyperreflective choroidal lesion with finger-like projections oriented in a stellate configuration. On ICGA, SMACH showed early and late hypofluorescence. None of the cases showed lesion growth.

CONCLUSIONS: SMACH appears to be a unilateral choroidopathy characterized by distinctive multimodal imaging features. As SRF was absent in some cases, while a dendriform pattern was a consistent finding in all eyes, we propose renaming this entity "stellate multiform amelanotic choroidopathy", a name which retains its prior abbreviation "SMACH".

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print