Darrith B, Rahman TM, Ananthasubramaniam K, Culvern C, Jacobs JJ, Silverton C. Echocardiographic Changes in the Context of Metal-on-Metal Versus Nonmetal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty. The Journal of arthroplasty 2020; .
The Journal of arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in echocardiographic results between patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) vs non-MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to determine if a correlation exists between serum metal levels and echocardiographic outcomes.
METHODS: Seventy-five patients with the same modular THA enrolled in this prospective cohort study, and 49 had MoM bearings. All patients had serum cobalt, chromium, and titanium levels drawn at 2 study visits with a transthoracic echocardiogram at the second visit. Serum metal concentrations and echocardiographic parameters were compared with 2-way t-tests. Multiple linear regression analyses identified any significant predictors of echocardiographic outcomes.
RESULTS: Mean serum cobalt and chromium levels were significantly greater in the MoM group at both time-points (P < .001 and P < .05, respectively). Titanium levels were similar between groups (P > .05). MoM patients had significantly lower global longitudinal strain compared with the non-MoM group (18.4% vs 20.2%; P = .026). Serum cobalt concentration was found to be an independent predictor of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (P = .02).
CONCLUSION: MoM THA bearings are associated with increased serum cobalt and chromium levels. Patients with MoM THAs had decreased global longitudinal strain, a measure of left ventricular function, but both groups remained within normal range. The clinical impact of the positive association between serum cobalt concentration and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, a marker of right ventricular function, deserves further study. These findings can reassure physicians and patients that metal-induced cardiomyopathy is not typical in the setting of MoM THA.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prospective Cohort Study.
ePub ahead of print