Mental health and tobacco use are correlated with PROMIS upper extremity and pain interference scores in patients with shoulder pathology

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Musculoskelet Surg


PURPOSE: To determine whether patient demographics have predictive influence on patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) domains of pain interference (PROMIS-PI), depression (PROMIS-D), and upper extremity (PROMIS-UE) for patients with shoulder pathology treated nonoperatively.

METHODS: Patients with partial rotator cuff tears, impingement, scapular dyskinesia, osteoarthritis, muscle strains, biceps tendonitis, instability, and acromioclavicular arthritis were retrospectively identified. Patients who underwent surgery were excluded. Demographic characteristics were documented, and PROMIS scores before and after nonoperative intervention were analyzed for correlations between each domain.

RESULTS: A total of 638 questionnaires (PROMIS-UE, PROMIS-PI, and PROMIS-D) were analyzed. PROMIS-UE had a strong negative correlation with PROMIS-PI (R = - 0.73, P < .001). PROMIS-PI and PROMIS-D demonstrated a positive correlation of moderate strength (R = 0.54, P < .001). Patients who never used tobacco, compared to current or former users, had significantly higher PROMIS-UE scores (34.5 vs. 30.6 and 31.9; P < .001), lower PROMIS-PI (59.7 vs. 63.1 and 60.9; P < .001), and lower PROMIS-D scores (47.3 vs. 52.1 and 49.3; P < .001). Patients with body mass index < 24.8 had significantly higher PROMIS-UE scores than those with > 24.8 (P < .05).

CONCLUSION: There is an inverse relationship between upper extremity physical function and pain and depression, as measured by PROMIS scores. Smoking and increased BMI are significant contributors to worse outcomes in patients with shoulder pathology, even in nonoperative populations. Counseling patients regarding prognosis and functional outcomes is important in managing their expectations in this patient population.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print