Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil


Purpose: To investigate which factors predispose patients for prolonged opioid use after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction at a single institution between January 2013 and June 2020 was conducted. Opioid consumption before and after surgery was recorded and confirmed using Michigan Automated Prescriptions System monitoring program. Patients were classified into preoperative opioid users and nonusers. Risk factors for continued opioid use were assessed by collecting patient demographic variables, psychiatric history, number of previous patellar dislocations, and operative factors.

Results: A total of 102 patients were included during the time frame of interest. Patients were on average 21.6 ± 8.5 years old with a mean body mass index of 28.2 ± 7.9. Thirty patients (29.0%) sustained >10 dislocations preoperatively. Preoperative opioid use was present in 13 (12.7%) patients. Greater than 10 dislocations (odds ratio [OR] 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-20.92) and psychiatric history (OR 3.33, 95% CI, 1.2-9.1; P = .016) significantly predicted opioid refills the first month after surgery. Risk factors for opioid refills at 2 to 12 months postoperatively included smoking (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.13-17.96), preoperative opioid use (OR 7.32, 95% CI 1.88-28.47), psychiatric disorder (OR 3.77, 95% CI 2.3-6.2; P < .001), age >30 years (OR 7.03, 95% CI 3.63-13.61; P < .001), and obesity (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.40-5.14; P = .002). Compared with Outerbridge 0, a greater percentage of patients with Outerbridge 1 or 2 and 3 or 4 continued using opioids 2 to 12 months after surgery (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.33-7.02; P = .006 and OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.24-6.59; P = .010, respectively).

Conclusions: For patients undergoing MPFL reconstruction, preoperative opioid use, cartilage damage, age >30 years, smoking history, body mass index >30, and history of psychiatric disorder were found to be significantly associated with prolonged opioid use after surgery. Postoperative opioid refills in this cohort declined after 1 month.

Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.