Preoperative Opioid Use Is Associated With Inferior Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Scores Following Rotator Cuff Repair

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PURPOSE: To determine the influence of preoperative opioid use on Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scores pre- and postoperatively in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR).

METHODS: A retrospective review of all RCR patients aged >18 years old was performed. PROMIS pain interference ("PROMIS PI"), upper extremity function ("PROMIS UE"), and depression ("PROMIS D") scores, were reviewed. These measures were collected at preoperative, 6-month, and 1-year postoperative time points. A prescription drug-monitoring program was queried to track opioid prescriptions. Patients were categorized as chronic users, acute users, and nonusers based on prescriptions filled. Comparison of means were carried out using analysis of variance and least squares means. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

RESULTS: In total, 184 patients who underwent RCR were included. Preoperatively, nonusers (n = 92) had superior PROMIS UE (30.6 vs 28.9 vs 26.1; P < .05) and PI scores (61.5 vs 64.9 vs 65.3; P < .001) compared with acute users (n = 65) and chronic users (n = 27), respectively. At 6 months postoperatively; nonusers demonstrated significantly greater PROMIS UE (41.7 vs 35.6 vs. 33.5; P < .001), lower PROMIS D (41.6 vs 45.8 vs 51.1; P < .001), and lower PROMIS PI scores (50.7 vs 56.3 vs 58.1; P < .01) when compared with acute and chronic users, respectively. Nonusers had lower PROMIS PI (47.9 vs 54.3 vs 57.4; P < .0001) and PROMIS D (41.6 vs 48.3 vs 49.2; P = .0002) scores compared with acute and chronic users at 1-year postoperatively. Nonusers experienced a significantly greater magnitude of improvement in PROMIS D 6 months postoperatively compared with chronic opioid users (-5.9 vs 0.0; P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing RCR demonstrated superior PROMIS scores pre- and postoperatively if they did not use opioids within 3 months before surgery.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, retrospective comparative trial.

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ePub ahead of print