Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Global Spine J


STUDY DESIGN: General population utility valuation study.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a technique for calculating utilities from the Neck Disability Index (NDI) score.

METHODS: We recruited a sample of 1200 adults from a market research panel. Using an online discrete choice experiment (DCE), participants rated 10 choice sets based on NDI health states. A multi-attribute utility function was estimated using a mixed multinomial-logit regression model (MIXL). The sample was partitioned into a training set used for model fitting and validation set used for model evaluation.

RESULTS: The regression model demonstrated good predictive performance on the validation set with an AUC of .77 (95% CI: .76-.78). The regression model was used to develop a utility scoring rubric for the NDI. Regression results also revealed that participants did not regard all NDI items as equally important. The rank order of importance was (in decreasing order): pain intensity = work; personal care = headache; concentration = sleeping; driving; recreation; lifting; and lastly reading.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a simple technique for converting the NDI score to utilities and quantify the relative importance of individual NDI items. The ability to evaluate quality-adjusted life-years using these utilities for cervical spine pain and disability could facilitate economic analysis and aid in allocation of healthcare resources.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print



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