Preoperative Evaluation of Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Current Best Practices
Russell MD, Shonka DC, Jr., Noel J, Karcioglu AS, Ahmed AH, Angelos P, Atkins K, Bischoff L, Buczek E, Caulley L, Freeman J, Kroeker T, Liddy W, McIver B, McMullen C, Nikiforov Y, Orloff L, Scharpf J, Shah J, Shaha A, Singer M, Tolley N, Tuttle RM, Witterick I, and Randolph GW. Preoperative Evaluation of Thyroid Cancer - a review of current best practices. Endocr Pract 2023.
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of thyroid cancer has significantly increased in recent decades. Although most thyroid cancers are small and carry an excellent prognosis, a subset of patients present with advanced thyroid cancer, which is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. The management of thyroid cancer requires a thoughtful individualized approach to optimize oncologic outcomes and minimize morbidity associated with treatment. Because endocrinologists usually play a key role in the initial diagnosis and evaluation of thyroid cancers, a thorough understanding of the critical components of the preoperative evaluation facilitates the development of a timely and comprehensive management plan. The following review outlines considerations in the preoperative evaluation of patients with thyroid cancer.
METHODS: A clinical review based on current literature was generated by a multidisciplinary author panel.
RESULTS: A review of considerations in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid cancer is provided. The topic areas include initial clinical evaluation, imaging modalities, cytologic evaluation, and the evolving role of mutational testing. Special considerations in the management of advanced thyroid cancer are discussed.
CONCLUSION: Thorough and thoughtful preoperative evaluation is critical for formulating an appropriate treatment strategy in the management of thyroid cancer.
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