Anatomy of the upper lateral cartilage along the lateral pyriform aperture.
Craig JR, Bied A, Landas S, and Suryadevara A. Anatomy of the upper lateral cartilage along the lateral pyriform aperture Plast Reconstr Surg 2015; 135(2):406-411.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery
BACKGROUND: The upper lateral cartilages underlie the nasal bones cephalically, and articulate with the nasal septum medially. The authors studied the histologic and anatomical relationships between the lateral aspect of the upper lateral cartilages and the frontal process of the maxilla.
METHODS: Six cadaver noses were dissected by open rhinoplasty to expose the upper lateral cartilages bilaterally. Subperiosteal dissection was performed over the medial maxillae and nasal bones to expose the perimeter of the pyriform aperture. Twelve sides were analyzed anatomically. Three cadavers were used to create six tissue specimens for histologic analysis, by resecting the tissue of the upper lateral cartilage-maxillary bone articulation en bloc.
RESULTS: Grossly in all specimens, the upper lateral cartilage articulated with the frontal process of the maxilla laterally, lying deep to the coronal plane of the maxillary bone. In four histologic specimens, the upper lateral cartilage was found to underlie the frontal process of the maxilla laterally, displaying an overlapping relationship. In the other two histologic specimens, the upper lateral cartilage ended medial to the maxilla. In all specimens, the ends of the upper lateral cartilage and maxilla articulated by way of a pyriform ligament.
CONCLUSIONS: The upper lateral cartilage articulates laterally with the frontal process of the maxilla by means of the pyriform ligament, with a variable amount of overlap between the upper lateral cartilage and maxilla. Relationships among the upper lateral cartilage, maxilla, and pyriform ligament affect the configuration of the lateral internal nasal valve area, and should be considered when planning internal nasal valve reconstruction.
Medical Subject Headings
African Americans; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Humans; Ligaments; Male; Maxilla; Middle Aged; Nasal Bone; Nasal Cartilages; Nasal Septum