Williams A, Olex M, Miller MK, Gilbert M, and Siddiqui F. Expanding Our Understanding of Adherence: The Role of Health Literacy and Cognitive Function in Adherence and Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer. American Journal of Clinical Oncology-Cancer Clinical Trials 2021; 44(10):S89-S90.
Am J Clin Oncol
Background: Health literacy is the degree to which a person has the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed to make decisions about their health care. Poor health literacy has been associated with difficulties managing medications, assessing and evaluating health information, completing medical and financial forms, and comparing nutritional information of foods. As such, health literacy is closely related to adherence to medical treatment. Cognitive function contributes to one's health literacy, though also independently contributes to adherence. Patients with head and neck cancers require complex, often multimodal care, and both health literacy and cognitive function have been found to be lower than the general population. However no study has examined the interaction between cognitive function and health literacy within treatment for head and neck cancer and outcomes.
Objectives: To examine the role of cognitive function and health literacy in adherence to definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy and disease-free and overall survival in patients with head and neck cancer.
Methods: 149 patients who received either definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and were assessed by psycho-oncology provider before initiating treatment were included. Patients between August 2017 through March 2020 were included. Patients were administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM-SF) by the psych-oncologist before starting treatment. Cancer and treatment related variables, including adherence, were obtained via chart review. Adherence was defined as having completed the treatment recommended by the Multi-disciplinary Tumor Board.
Results: Patients were predominantly male (78%), white (73%), with an average age of 62 years (SD=9.1). The average years of education was 13.6 years (SD=2.6). The mean health literacy score was 6.3 out of 7 (SD=1.3, range 0-7), indicating reading at 7-8th grade level. The mean cognitive function score was 23.8 out of 30 (SD=3.6, range 10-30, scores less than 26 are indicative of cognitive impairment). Sixteen percent of patients were non-adherent to treatment recommendations and this was not associated with either health literacy or cognitive function (P=0.5 & 0.36, respectively). Lower health literacy was associated with later stage at presentation (P<0.05). Health literacy was not associated with disease-free or overall survival (P=0.66 & 0.11, respectively). However, cognitive function was associated with overall survival (P<0.0001) but not disease-free survival (P=0.22).
Conclusions: Psychosocial variables such as health literacy and cognitive function are infrequently considered or studied in head and neck cancer. However, there exists significant evidence that patients with head and neck cancer tend to have higher rates of cognitive impairment and lower health literacy than the general population. Further, literacy and cognitive function are known to contribute to health outcomes in other populations. The current study found that cognitive impairment, but not health literacy, is associated with overall survival, while not being associated with treatment adherence. Further research is needed into the pathways that cognitive function interacts with cancer care and survival. This study highlights the need for assessment of cognitive function in patients with head and neck cancer, as identification and intervention with these patients can aid in survival outcomes and quality of life.