Morphological Spectrum of Renal Cell Carcinoma, Unclassified: An Analysis of 136 Cases

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AIMS: Renal cell carcinoma, unclassified (RCCU) is a category that includes a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of tumours that are unable to be diagnosed as other well-defined entities. We aim to describe the morphological findings of tumours within this category and to determine the most frequent morphological features leading to classification difficulty.

METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six cases of RCCU were examined. Patients ranged in age from 23 to 87 years. Seventy-seven patients were men and 59 were women. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade was most commonly 3 (n = 66), followed by 2 (n = 42) and 4 (n = 28). Tumour size ranged from 0.6 to 24.9 cm. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathological T categories included pT1a (n = 50), pT1b (n = 14), pT2a (n = 7), pT2b (n = 4), pT3a (n = 50) and pT4 (n = 9). Forty-four cases included lymph node(s), 41% of which (n = 18) had metastases. Tumours were assessed for a variety of histological features and assigned to the following morphological groups: predominantly oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC-like; clear cell RCC-like; papillary RCC-like; collecting duct-like; and pure sarcomatoid differentiation. The majority of the oncocytoma/chromophobe and clear cell RCC-like phenotypes were low stage (pT1 or pT2). The papillary RCC-like, collecting duct-like and pure sarcomatoid phenotypes were mainly high stage (pT3 or pT4).

CONCLUSIONS: Renal cell carcinoma, unclassified is a term that encompasses tumours with a variety of morphological features and a wide biological spectrum. The most common source of diagnostic difficulty was tumours composed of predominantly eosinophilic cells.

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Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Female; Humans; Kidney Neoplasms; Male; Middle Aged; Young Adult

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