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Seminars in oncology


Advances in molecular immunology have unveiled some of the complexity of the mechanisms regulating cellular immune responses and led to the successful targeting of immune checkpoints in attempts to enhance antitumor T cell responses. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy have been the mainstay of treatment in urologic malignancies. Immune checkpoint molecules such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4, programmed cell death protein-1, and programmed death-ligand 1 have been shown to play central roles in evading cancer immunity. Thus these molecules have been targeted by inhibitors for the management of cancers forming the basis of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is now among the first line therapeutic options for metastatic renal cell carcinomas. In advanced bladder cancer, immunotherapy is the standard of care in the second line and the first line for cisplatin ineligible patients. There continues to be ongoing research to identify the role if any of immunotherapy in testicular, prostatic, and penile cancers. The ideal biomarker for response to immunotherapy is still elusive. Although programmed death-ligand 1 immunohistochemical testing has been widely used across the globe as a biomarker for immunotherapy, companion diagnostic tests have inherent issues with testing and reporting and cannot have universal applicability. Additional biomarkers including, tumor mutational burden, deficient mismatch repair, high microsatellite instability, and immune gene expression profiling are being evaluated in various clinical trials. This review appraises the data of immunotherapy in the management of urologic malignancies.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Immunotherapy; Urologic Neoplasms

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