Hepatoid Teratoma, Hepatoid Yolk Sac Tumor, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 30 Cases

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The American journal of surgical pathology


Rare hepatoid teratomas (HTs) in testicular germ cell tumor patients mimic hepatoid yolk sac tumor (HYST) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We compared the features of 2 metastatic HTs, 12 HYSTs, and 16 HCCs. The mean ages were 36, 40, and 62.5 years, respectively. The HTs formed sheets of hepatocyte-like cells with macrovesicular fat arranged in vague lobules with intervening fibrous bands containing biliary ductule-like structures and abortive portal triads. HTs lacked basement membrane deposits, with hepatoid cells staining for glypican-3, arginase, and HepPar-1 (2/2), whereas stains for CK19 (2/2) and CK7 (1/2) highlighted ductules and for villin hepatoid cells and ductules (1/2). SALL4 and CDX2 stains were negative (0/2). HYSTs formed nests, trabeculae, cords, and occasional gland-like structures, and most (10/12; 83%) produced intercellular basement membrane. No Mallory-Denk bodies were seen. Stains for SALL4 (100%), glypican-3 (100%), CK19 (88%), CDX2 (88%), and villin (75%) were positive, whereas those for HepPar-1 highlighted rare tumor cells (70%) and for arginase were mostly negative (26%). All HCCs lacked basement membrane deposits, with Mallory-Denk bodies occurring in 50%. Stains for HepPar-1 (100%) and arginase (94%) were positive, glypican-3 infrequent (19%), and SALL4, CK19, villin, and CDX2 negative. In summary, HTs are distinguished from HYST by the formation of ductules and abortive portal tracts, lack of basement membrane deposits, more consistent staining for arginase and HepPar-1, and negativity for SALL4 and CDX2. Contrasting features of HCCs with HYSTs include negativity for SALL4, CK19, and CDX2, frequent Mallory-Denk bodies, and absence of basement membrane deposits.

Medical Subject Headings

Adolescent; Adult; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Diagnosis, Differential; Endodermal Sinus Tumor; Humans; Immunohistochemistry; Liver Neoplasms; Male; Middle Aged; Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal; Teratoma; Testicular Neoplasms; Young Adult

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